Prices in the national electricity market averaged $87 per megawatt-hour in the first three months of the year, above the level promised by the federal government. Wholesale electricity prices for industry and large businesses have already exceeded the level promised by the federal government, adding another cost pressure to the economy. Prices in the national electricity market averaged $87 per megawatt-hour in the first three months of this year, up more than two-thirds from the December 2021 quarter, the Australian Energy Market Operator (AEMO) said recently. That's up 141% from the March 2021 quarter.
Because of the ever-changing international situation, the supply and prices of international bulk alumina are still very uncertain.
What is γ-Alumina?
Alumina with γ-type crystal form is γ-alumina.
γ-type alumina is insoluble in water and can dissolve in strong acid or alkali solution. When heated to 1200 ℃, γ-type alumina is completely transformed into α-type alumina. γ-type alumina is a porous substance with an internal surface area of several hundred square meters per gram and high activity and strong adsorption capacity. Industrial products are often colorless or pink cylindrical particles with good pressure resistance.
The particle size of γ-phase nano-alumina is smaller than that of 20nm, with uniform particle size distribution, high purity, excellent dispersion, high specific surface, high temperature-resistant inertia and high activity, so it belongs to active alumina, porosity, high hardness and good dimensional stability.
It can be widely used in the reinforcement and toughening of all kinds of plastics, rubber, ceramics, refractories and other products, especially in improving the compactness, finish, cold and hot fatigue, fracture toughness, creep resistance and wear resistance of polymer materials. It is easy to disperse in solvent water; it can be uniformly dispersed in ethanol, propanol, propylene glycol, isopropanol, ethylene glycol monobutyl ether, acetone, butanone, benzene and xylene without adding dispersant. It is often added to epoxy resin, plastics, etc.
What is γ-Alumina used for?
Coatings: porcelain film coatings, wear-resistant coatings and plasma spraying.
Ceramics: transparent ceramics, bioceramics and alumina ceramics.
Petrochemical industry: catalyst, catalyst carrier and automobile exhaust purification material.
Polishing materials: submicron / nanometer grinding materials, single crystal silicon wafer grinding, fine polishing materials.
Lighting: long afterglow phosphor raw material and rare earth tricolor phosphor raw material, high pressure sodium lamp transparent tube, LED lamp and so on.
Electronics: integrated circuit substrate, single crystal materials and far-infrared materials.
Cosmetics: cosmetic fillers.
Inorganic membrane materials.
Aluminum Oxide Price
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With Russia taking the lead on Poland and Bulgaria at the end of last month, there appears to be a growing sense of compromise within the EU over whether to accept Moscow's proposed rouble settlement order.
Italy's prime minister said recently that European companies would be able to buy gas in roubles without violating sanctions. This apparently ignores the guidance of hardliners in the EU to "fight to the end".
For weeks, European companies have been trying to find ways to meet Russia's payment demands for the rouble while maintaining vital gas supplies without violating sanctions against Moscow.
Late last month, European Commission President Von der Leyen said operating under the mechanism would violate sanctions and asked European companies not to bow to Russian demands. However, the EU has yet to issue more rigorous written guidelines on how companies should pay Gazprom.
The Italian prime minister said recently, "There is no official announcement from the European Union about what ruble settlement means for sanctions violations, and no one has said whether ruble payments violate sanctions or not. It's a grey area."
"In fact, most gas importers are already opening rouble accounts for deals with Gazprom,"
He also used German companies as a shield. He said Germany's largest gas importer had already paid in rubles. "In fact, we saw evidence yesterday that the largest gas importer in Germany has already paid in rubles."
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